Tattooing, or the insertion of indelible dyes under the dermis, is a universal body modification practice and a very old one, as shown by mummies found in China, Egypt and the Altai territory. Many tribes in Africa, Indonesia, India, and Polynesia still use tattoos to indicate rank, status and age within their community or simply for aesthetic purposes, as a kind of make-up.

In other parts of the world, tattoos have had negative connotations as they were historically worn by outcasts, sla...


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