NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg addressed a conference at the National Cyber Security Center on 23 May in London on how the Alliance plans to counter cyber threats, which he said are fundamentally changing the nature of warfare and that NATO is adapting its countermeasures by strengthening its capabilities and increasing its resources.

Stoltenberg specifically warned Russia and other potential foes that NATO is ready to use all means at its disposal to respond to cyber attacks.

“For deterrence to have full effect, potential attackers must know we are not limited to respond in cyberspace when we are attacked,” said Stoltenberg.

Western allies accuse Moscow of trying to sway the outcome of the 2016 US presidential vote and using cyber technology to cripple the infrastructure of neighbouring Ukraine.

The European Union recently adopted the power to impose targeted restrictive measures to deter and respond to cyber attacks. Stoltenberg refused to say what exactly steps might be taken by NATO in the event of a new Russian cyber attack, but said, “We can and will use the full range of capabilities at our disposal.”