Industry leaders like US giants Chevron and ExxonMobil, Russia’s LUKoil and China’s CNPC carry out massive oil production operations in Kazakhstan, investing billions of dollars and employing up to 17,000 people across the country. The aggregate budget of the three largest oil and gas projects in Kazakhstan – Kashagan, Karachaganak and Tengiz – is $45 billion.

“Three major projects – Kashagan, Tengiz and Karachaganak – account for 75 percent of all oil and gas service contracts in Kazakhstan....

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