If the United Kingdom leaves the European Union without a deal, the Netherlands could lose €700 million in food safety services and €1.6 billion in higher EU contributions, neither of which include either import and export duties.
According to an audit report commissioned by the Dutch government, €2.3 billion would be the overall cost of a hard Brexit for the taxpayer in the first year, 2019-2020,  which would then rise to €2.5 billion-€3 billion a year until 2026.
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