The refugee crisis that hit Europe in 2014 has reinforced anti-Islamic sentiments across EU member states. Islamophobia has now become a matter of everyday politics and populist leaders are investing heavily on this issue. Islamophobia, however, is not a new phenomenon in Europe. Some electorally successful political parties owe their luck to the exploitation of the widespread hatred against Muslims and their religion. In France and the Netherlands, for instance, islamophobia is an old phenomeno...

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