Bribery and corruption are fairly commonplace in Germany, according to 43% of German business executives polled by auditing group EY (formerly Ernst & Young). That’s a big jump from 2015 when a similar poll found that 26% of German managers believed the same.

“VW’s emissions-cheating scam, the Libor rate-rigging scandal, and [unlawful] collusion among companies as well as a raft of compliance violations have made the headlines quite frequently of late,” says Stefan Heissner, who heads EY’s Fraud Investigation & Dispute Services division.

As reported by Deutsche Welle (DW), Germany’s international broadcaster, this is still below the global average of 51% recorded for the more than 4,000 executives polled in 41 nations in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and India.

Perceptions that shifty dealings are normal behaviour are highest in Ukraine, where 88% of respondents say corruption amongst managers is widespread. The situation is not much better in Cyprus (82%), Greece or Slovakia (81%).

At the other end are the Scandinavian countries and Switzerland. Denmark leads the field in its own executives’ perceptions of fair dealing amongst their in-country peers, with a mere 6% of respondents identifying corruption as a common phenomenon.