Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Canada are some of the few countries to benefit economically from climate change in recent decades, according to a Stanford University study published by the US National Academy of Sciences in its prestigious journal, PNAS.

The main observation is that warming is “increasing growth in cool countries and decreasing growth in warm countries.”

Comparing 50 years of historical temperature fluctuations and economic growth, researchers found that warming has led to “robust and substantial declines in economic output in hotter, poorer countries—and increases in many cooler countries—relative to a world without anthropogenic warming.”

Between 1961 and 2010, researchers say, Iceland’s GDP grew by 92%, Finland’s by 48%, Norway’s by 34%. Other main beneficiaries have been Canada, Sweden, and Russia according to the report.

The report finds that neither the benefits nor the costs of global warming are shared equally, as rich country fossil fuel consumption is often to the detriment of poor countries’ economic vulnerability.